Study: physical activity, occasional alcohol consumption decrease vision impairment risk

May 6, 2014

A physically active lifestyle and occasional drinking are associated with a reduced risk of developing visual impairment, according to a study recently published in Ophthalmology.

San Francisco, CA-A physically active lifestyle and occasional drinking are associated with a reduced risk of developing visual impairment, according to a study recently published in Ophthalmology.

To help determine ways to decrease the growing burden of visual impairment, researchers from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health examined the relationships between the incidence of visual impairment and 3 modifiable lifestyle behaviors: smoking, drinking alcohol, and staying physically active. The research was conducted as part of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, a long-term population-based cohort study from 1988 to 2013 of nearly 5,000 adults aged 43 to 84 years.

The researchers found that over 20 years visual impairment developed in 5.4% of the population and varied based on lifestyle behaviors as follows:

• Physically active persons (people who engage in regular activity 3 or more times a week): Over 20 years, 6.7% of sedentary persons and 2% of physically active persons developed visual impairment. After adjustment for age, these figures show a 58% decrease in odds of developing visual impairment in those who were physically active compared to those who were sedentary.

• Occasional drinkers (those who have consumed alcohol in the past year, but reported fewer than one serving in an average week): Over 20 years, 11% of non-drinkers (people who have not consumed alcohol within the past year) developed visual impairment while 4.8% of occasional drinkers did so. After adjustment for age, these figures show a 49% decrease in odds of developing visual impairment in those who were occasional drinkers compared to those who consumed no alcohol.

• While the odds were higher in heavy drinkers and smokers compared to people who never drank heavily and never smoked, respectively, the associations were not statistically significant.

While the study provides risk estimates of associations of lifestyle factors with the incidence of visual impairment, the researchers caution that a limitation to their study is that the findings may be due, in part, to unmeasured factors related to both lifestyle behaviors and development of visual impairment. The data does not prove that these lifestyle behaviors are directly responsible for increased risk.

"While age is usually one of the most strongly associated factors for many eye diseases that cause visual impairment, it is a factor we cannot change," said Ronald Klein, MD, MPH, lead researcher of the study. "Lifestyle behaviors like smoking, drinking, and physical activity, however, can be altered. So, it's promising, in terms of possible prevention, that these behaviors are associated with developing visual impairment over the long term. However, further research is needed to determine whether modifying these behaviors will in fact lead to a direct reduction in vision loss."